Understanding the structure and functions of the spine can help you better understand some of the problems that occur from aging or injury.
The spine is made up of 33 bones, each called a vertebra, that are stacked on one another with a DISC in-between.
It has three segments which form three natural curves. The "c-shaped" curves of the neck (cervical spine) and lower back (lumbar spine) are called lordosis and the "reverse c-shaped" curve of the chest (thoracic spine) is called kyphosis.
These curves are important for proper spinal balance and help us to stand upright. If any one of the curves becomes too large or small, it becomes difficult to stand up straight and our posture appears abnormal. Abnormal curvatures of the spine are also referred to as spinal deformity.(Refer to Kyphosis, Scoliosis or Spondylolisthesis)
Distribution of vertebrae
The Intervertebral disks are flat and round, and about a half inch thick in the lower back region and quarter inch in the neck region. They are made up of two components; a tough outer layer (annulus fibrosis) that surrounds a softer material called the nucleus pulposus. These discs act as shock absorbers for the spinal bones. Ligaments attached to the vertebrae also serve as supporting structures.
The vertebrae are connected to one another by two joints from behind called as FACET joints. Together with the Disc, they form a 3 joint complex allowing motion between the vertebrae.
These vertebrae connect to one another to create a canal in the center (Spinal canal) which houses the spinal cord and also protects it.The spinal Cord
As you know, the spinal cord is an extension of the brain, containing nervous tissue. The spinal cord is bathed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and surrounded by three protective layers called the meninges (dura, arachnoid, and pia mater).
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves that come out of the spinal cord on either side of the vertebrae which transmit electrical signals from the spinal cord to different parts of your body.
The spinal cord ends at first Lumbar vertebra , below this is a collection of nerves known as the cauda equina, which is Latin for "horse's tail".
Injury to the spinal cord:
Most common Causes
M.S (Ortho) AIIMS
M.S (Ortho) AIIMS
MS Ortho, AFSA Spine(France)
Fellowship in Spine Surgery
M.B.B.S MRC Psych (UK)
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